Skin Conditions

General Requirements for all Studies

General Requirements for Studies

  • Must be in general good health (physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease/infirmity). 
  • Cannot have been diagnosed with known allergies to skin care products.
  • Cannot have a history of skin cancer within the past 5 years.
  • Cannot have any health condition and/or pre-existing or dormant dermatologic disease on the areas being tested (eg, psoriasis, rosacea, acne [moderate to severe acne, acne nodules, or cysts], eczema, seborrheic dermatitis, severe excoriations, etc). This will change if the study is for acne, psoriasis, eczema and rosacea.
  • Cannot have observable sunburn, suntan, scars, nevi, excessive hair, tattoos, unremovable jewelry, or other dermal conditions on the areas being tested.
  • Cannot have a history of immunosuppression/immune deficiency disorders (including HIV infection, AIDS, multiple sclerosis, Crohn’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis), organ transplant (heart, kidney, etc), or currently using oral or systemic immunosuppressive medications and biologics (eg, azathioprine, belimumab, Cimzia®, Cosentyx®, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine, Enbrel®, Humira®, Imuran®, Kineret®, mycophenolate mofetil, methotrexate, Orencia®, prednisone, Remicade®, Rituxan®, Siliq™, Simponi®, Stelara®, Taltz®) and/or currently undergoing radiation or chemotherapy.
  • Cannot be currently using or having regularly used corticosteroids (systemic or topical, not nasal or ocular) within the past 4 weeks (including but not limited to betamethasone, clobetasol, desoximetasone, diflorasone, fluocinonide, fluticasone, mometasone, halcinonide, and halobetasol).
  • Cannot have started a long-term medication within the last 2 months.
  • Cannot have any diseases such as asthma, diabetes, epilepsy, high blood pressure or a high/low thyroid that is not controlled by diet or medication that is not controlled by diet or medication. This can vary based on study.
  • Females only- Cannot be nursing, pregnant, or planning to become pregnant during the study.
  • Cannot have any planned surgeries or invasive medical procedures during the study. Non-invasive medical procedures or surgeries will be reviewed.
  • Cannot be currently participating in any other clinical trial at Stephens, another research facility, or doctor’s office or have participated in any clinical trial involving the test area within 2 or 4 weeks (the number of weeks depends upon the study) prior to inclusion into the study at Stephens, at another research facility or doctor’s office.

 Additional requirements for Anti-aging Studies

  • Must not have had any facial treatments in the past 6 months and are willing to withhold all facial treatments during the course of the study including facials, facial peels, photo facials, laser treatments, dermabrasion, botulinum toxin (Botox®), injectable filler treatments, intense pulsed light (IPL), acid treatments, tightening treatments, facial plastic surgery, or any other treatment administered by a physician or skin care professional designed to improve the appearance or firmness of facial skin. Waxing and threading are allowed but not facial laser hair removal.
  • Cannot be currently using or have used any of the following medications within the noted time frame prior to the study start: (Time frames can vary based on study
    • Oral isotretinoin (Accutane®) within the last 6 months
    • Avita®, Differin®, Renova®, Retin-A®, Retin-A Micro®, Soriatane®, or Tazorac®within 3 months
    • Prescription-strength skin lightening products (eg, hydroquinone, tretinoin, alpha/beta/poly-hydroxy acids, 4-hydroxyanisole alone or in combination with tretinoin, etc) within 3 months.
    • Any anti-wrinkle, skin-lightening, or other product or topical or systemic medication known to affect skin aging or dyschromia (eg, products containing alpha/beta/poly-hydroxy acids, emblica extract, gigawhite, hydroquinone, lemon juice extract [topically], Q-10, soy, systemic or licorice extract [topically], Tego®Cosmo C250, vitamin C, etc) within 2 weeks.

 

Fitzpatrick Skin Classification

The Fitzpatrick skin classification is based on the skin’s unprotected response to the first 30 to 45 minutes of sun exposure after a winter season without sun exposure. The categories are as follows:

FITZPATRICK I

Typical Physical Features Reaction to sun exposure CELEBRITY TWIN SKIN
Nicole Kidman Emma Stone

· White, very pale, porcelain, ivory skin tone

· Red or blonde hair

· Light colored eyes  (light blue, light green, grey)

· Freckles are common

· Example:  fair-skinned Caucasian or Albino, Celtic

·ALWAYS burns, blisters, and peels

 

·NEVER tans

   

FITZPATRICK II

Typical Physical Features Reaction to sun exposure CELEBRITY TWIN SKIN
Scarlett Johansson Reese Witherspoon

·White, fair skin

·Light colored hair

·Blue, hazel, or green eyes

· May have freckles

· Example:  fair-skinned Caucasian, Scandinavian

· Usually burns, blisters and peels

· Tans minimally or with difficulty


FITZPATRICK III

Typical Physical Features Reaction to sun exposure CELEBRITY TWIN SKIN
Sandra Bullock Lisa Ling

· Cream white, peachy to beige or light olive skin tone

· Any hair color

· Any eye color

· Example:  darker Caucasian, European mix, lighter skinned Hispanics or Asians

·Sometimes burns

·Tans gradually

FITZPATRICK IV

Typical Physical Features Reaction to sun exposure CELEBRITY TWIN SKIN
Jennifer Lopez Priyanka Chopra 

·Golden to olive or light brown skin tone (like caramel)

·Usually dark hair and eyes

· Example:  Mediterranean, European, Asian, Hispanic, American Indian, sometimes mixed race African American

· Burns minimally

· ALWAYS tans well

Image result for priyanka chopra head shot


FITZPATRICK V

Typical Physical Features Reaction to sun exposure CELEBRITY TWIN SKIN
Eddie Murphy Gabrielle Union

·Brown to dark brown skin tone

·Dark hair and dark eyes

·Example:  Hispanics, African Americans, Middle Eastern

 

·VERY RARELY burns

 

· Tans very quickly and easily

FITZPATRICK VI

Typical Physical Features Reaction to sun exposure CELEBRITY TWIN SKIN
Taye Diggs Seal  (R&B Singer)

·Deep mahogany to ebony or black skin tone

·Dark hair and dark eyes

· Example:  African Americans, African, Middle Eastern

· NEVER burns

· Deeply pigmented (tans quickly and deeply)

Image result for seal singer

 

Basic Types of Acne Lesions

Acne is a term we use to describe inflammatory lesions that are red, raised, and sometimes painful. Inflammatory lesions that have puss visible through the skin are referred to as pustule, while red, raised lesions that do not have any visible sign of puss are called papules.

“Acne-prone ” people have non-inflammatory acne or “comedones” which refers to lesions, like blackheads and whiteheads that are slightly raised but are not red in color. A blackhead is an open pore clogged with oil and debris, while a whitehead is an obstructed pore that is enclosed by the skin.

 

Eczema

Eczema is a chronically relapsing skin disease associated with erythema, scaly and oozing plaques, and severe itching.  Signs and symptoms of eczema are associated with a compromised immune system and a defective skin barrier.

       

 

Facial Photoaging

Photoaging occurs overtime as we are exposed to sunlight and pollution. Characteristics of photoaged skin include darkened areas of pigmentation (brown spots and patches), wrinkles, rough-looking skin, and facial sagging.

Global facial wrinkles are defined as wrinkles in one or more areas including the forehead, glabella (between the eyes), crow’s feet (side of the eye), Under the eyes, nasolabial (between the nose and cheek area), around the lips, or marionette (extending downwards from the corners of the lips).

Lip Wrinkles

Crow’s Feet Wrinkles

Crow’s feet wrinkles are a wrinkle or wrinkles, that extend from the outer corner of the eye and extend beyond the orbital bone.

Undereye Wrinkles

Mottled Pigmentation

Mottled hyperpigmentation consists of darkened areas, or patches, of skin on the face, commonly found along the hairline, jawline, or cheeks.

Age Spots

Age spots are flat areas of discrete hyperpigmentation (darkening of the skin) that can be any shape but must have well-defined borders. They are often seen in areas of the skin that the greatest sun exposure, like the face (cheeks, forehead and the back of the hands).

Melasma

Melasma is caused by hormonal changes and/or by sun damage and appears as symmetrical noticable brown patches on the cheeks, forehead, and jawline.

Post Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation

Post Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation (PIH) refers to the darkening of skin after the healing of inflammatory acne lesions. PIH usually has an indistinct border with a somewhat round shape and feels flat (even with the surrounding skin).

Facial Firmness and Sagging

Facial sagging is loss of firmness or sagging appearance of skin around the brow, cheek bones, and jawline.

  

Enlarged Pores

Individuals with enlarged pores have indentations that appear on the surface of the skin on the cheeks, close to the nose.

Under Eye Skin Conditions

Under Eye Bags and Puffiness

Under eye bags or “puffiness” is caused by fluid buildup under the eyes and loss of elastin, collagen, and muscle support.

Under Eye Dark Circles

Under eye dark circles are caused by poor circulation of blood under the eye that creates a purple-to-blue appearance or a brown black pigmentation under the eye close to the nose.

Hand Photodamage

Hand photodamage is due to sun exposure and environmental factors and can be seen by the emergence of age-spots (see below), thinning of the skin, and diffuse wrinkling that causes a surface appearance, similar to that of crepe paper.